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Adaptron Inc.     Research   Papers
 
This page updated: Mar. 4th, 2015
Research - Notes
 
When Brett first started his research he was a teenager. Many of his early ideas reflect his simplistic thinking and his lack of knowledge in the areas of psychology, cognitive science and artificial intelligence. Many of the ideas are just wrong. Also recognize that during the first decade of this research computers were not readily available for testing the ideas. However over many years of reading and research in these subjects his work has become far more relevant and ground breaking. With the advent of personal computers he could finally start implementing the ideas. Many of the relevant and more interesting notes and ideas up to 1997 were consolidated into an unfinished book. You might find this easier to read than the crude notes.
 
These are his research notes in chronological order. Photos of the diagrams from the original notes have been inserted. The notes will be added to on a regular basis until they are up-to-date.
 
     1970         1980         1990         2000         2010                           1997 Unfinished Book
     1971         1981         1991         2001         2011
     1972         1982         1992         2002         2012
     1973         1983         1993         2003         2013
     1974         1984         1994         2004         2014
     1975         1985         1995         2005         2015
     1976         1986         1996         2006         2016
     1977         1987         1997         2007         2017
     1978         1988         1998         2008         2018
     1979         1989         1999         2009         2019
 
Some time in 1968
 
Page 1: Ideas Robot        [Page numbers were added to the original notes in November 2011]
 
Only has to consist of brain, two senses (eyes and ears).
No digestive system. It has muscles of some description. Skin Skeleton the chest and body can be filled with memory banks or analysing equipment for the brain. It must have speech. I must consider source of energy, maybe battery or straight from the plug. (How about nuclear? Ho)  It needs some means of travel i.e. legs and feet. A walkie-talkie set so I can communicate with it while I’m out.
 
It has to have an inner ear so it can stabilize itself automatically.  It has to be sensitive to infrared ultra violet x-rays and gamma rays. This will give it a larger field of vision. It has to be a water proof skin. Have to study how the ear works. How will the frequencies it hears be transmitted into electric impulses? The range of sound frequency it is able to hear will be greater than mans.
 
Memory has to record frequencies of electric impulses. It also has to be permanent so that when it is wanted only that frequency will respond that was recorded and is not to be wiped out when it is replayed or wanted.
 
Once the cell which has recorded the frequency has been used to record and holds a bit of information. It will not be able to record another impulse but will be able to tell whether these impulses are the same or different from original impulse recorded in the cell. It will not be able to change the impulse passing; will let it pass on without distorting it. If it turns out to be the same as the original impulse, the impulse will be channeled back to the conscious concentrating unit.
 
Automatic can be concentrated on or can not be conce. autom.
 
 
Page 2: Electronic brain continued
 
The Eye: Each light detector gives a different rate of impulses depending upon the frequency of light falling upon it. The mind can only concentrate on one specific region of the detectors which will be detecting the central object the eye is directed at.
 
The ear will give different rates of impulses directly proportional to the frequency of sound falling upon it. The eye will have an iris which will be automatically controlled depending on light intensity. It needs 2 eyes which can give 3D images. It needs 2 ears to detect direction of sound.
 
Muscles will have to be made of some substance which will contract proportional to intensity of impulses or frequency. If it’s impulses then intensity will have to have something that will change the intensity proportional to frequency. I will have to have a coordination part in the brain. This will select what the consciousness will concentrate on. I will also have an automatic coordinator for parts which will have to be automatic and not able to be concentrated upon. I will also need an automatic coordinator for parts which can be concentrated upon and also made automatic when the concentration switches to other things.
 
A voice will be supplied by a speaker.
 
Memory has to be able to trace or put down, in a readable way, frequencies of impulses and that is all. We cannot have interference from radio waves or power lines. All wires should be well insulated.
 
The brain will be programmed by its senses and the memory will remember the consequences of every move. It will remember incorrect answers and correct answers.
 
Page 3: Electronic Brain for robot
 
It must consist of a permanent memory which slowly fills up and temporary memory.
 
The human brain can only concentrate on one fact or bit of knowledge at a time. Other things done are done automatically without being conscious of it. Being conscious is to concentrate on something.
 
I must take into consideration the time factor of brain and speed at which the voice goes.
 
Page 4
 
 
I need a part to separate muscle impulses from eye impulses from ear impulses coming in which will be called coordinator. Where the consciousness exists is in the coordinator.
 
Page 5: EB Rob
 
What causes someone to ask questions? They have something they want.
 
How about a magnetic tape system for it to recall record or store impulses on? The robot might have to be disconnected from the EB. Impulse transmitted between them by radio waves. This enables the senses to move around giving a wider scope for the EB. Have a better understanding of the wiring. Have a better understanding of the impulses used. Have a unit which can record from the E.B. all the information need for one skill e.g. driving a car. The robot learns how to drive. Then it turns on this unit and records all the experiences and judgments necessary for driving. This can later be put into a smaller brain in the car which could drive a car automatically.
 
Neurons have to record and compare record in chronological order and detail.
 
Question: What if two impulses come in at the same time? How can we record in chronological order? How can we recall at the same time as record? How can we make one neuron only record an impulse and not let them all record the same impulse?
 
 
Page 6
 
 
Blue Sense – memory familiar – no – interest and record
 
Blue Sense – memory familiar – yes – do I understand – no – interest
 
Blue sense -> memory familiar – yes
 
White sense – memory familiar – no – interest
 
White sense – memory familiar yes – do I understand – no – interest
 
Blue sense – memory familiar – yes – do I understand – yes – expect white
Expected white sense – memory familiar – no
 
White sense memory familiar – no – do I understand yes -> expected blue
 
Orange sense – memory familiar – no – interest
 
Blue sense – memory familiar – yes – do I understand – expect orange or blue
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
Blue Sense – memory familiar – yes – do I understand – yes – expect white
 
Blue word sense – memory familiar – no – interest
 
Blue word sense – memory familiar – yes – do I understand – yes
                                                                                           – expect white or blue word
                                                                                                       Say blue word
 
Blue word sense – memory familiar – yes – do I understand
 
Blue sight S, mf, N, R+I   Blue sight S mf y DU N R+I
Blue sight S mf, y, DU, y, R + Ex B. White sight S mf N R+I white sight
mf, y, DU, N, R+I  Blue sight S mf y DU y R+Ex B or Ex White
 
(Knowing what to do) understanding involves recording  repeating seeing if he wants it recalling, moving, speaking, paying no attention, paying attention, expecting, comparing, deciding concluding.
 
 
Page 7.0:  The consciousness in the same unit
 
 
Mr A meets Mr B. Mr A is unfamiliar with Mr A’s record of what should be here. Therefore recalls rest of memory. He is familiar in the past and can notice any changes between present and past. Recall for name which follows face.
 
Mr A meets lion. Lion is unfamiliar with Mr A’s record of what should be here. Therefore recalls rest of memory. He is familiar in the past and can recall what should be done.
 
Mr A meets wife. Wife is familiar with Mr A’s record of what should be here. Therefore recalls what he should do.
 
Mr A meets Mr C. Mr C is unfamiliar with Mr A’s record of what should be here. Therefore recalls rest of memory. He is unfamiliar in the past and interested in him.
 
If unfamiliar with past experience or results then open senses. If familiar with past experience or causes or results it wants to know what to do. If it is familiar with past experience causes or results and it knows what to do it does it.
 
Page 7.1:  Memory Neuron
 
 
We have to add a delay system so that the last memory circuit can’t be recalled for a second after it has been recorded. All circuits not having any record also must be able to be recalled. Need some system such that the record impulse allows the record to be recalled. There will be a delay for backwards impulse to notify the next neuron to record. Out wire will complete the circuit to power supply which supplies power for senses.
If one line of neurons turns out to be the same other lines on either side are stimulated or read out.
 
Consciousness, where is the minds eye or minds ear?
 
 
Page 7.2: What does the Rob have to do?
 
Answer any questions, obey commands.
 
 
After say 3 recalls giving same this pattern is read into the automatic unit.
 
Page 7.3
 
 
It will do what it is told.
 
It will have to remember and thereby know how to do it. Therefore its basic learning command is to repeat whatever it hears and feels in speech and movement. This will give a resultant hear and feel which will be remembered. [Feeling is being used to mean the sense of touch in these early notes.]
 
It has to have a selective mechanism such that it selects things to do. If it is wrong it is told so. If it is right it is told so by punishment or reward thereby knowing what to do and what not to do.
 
 
Page 8
 
 
 
Desire for something different the same unit is under control of desire.
Same unit does what the different unit wants
Whenever it reads, A is open. If there is no command then recall.
Desire for a difference (similarity) which will bring understanding same unit does the understanding.
Learning is the process understanding. Understanding is knowing what to do. It is memorized. It is interested in understanding.
Desire for difference gives understanding, gives survival. Survival lets him find differences.
Same unit once it understands it will not record.
Punishment is not letting it understand. Soon learn in the same situations in which he can’t do anything and same situation in which he can understand.
 
Page 9
 
 
 
To start will be on for voices or movements.
Sight information S + CRS
Voice or none information in St or Rd
 
Need a device to show whether it is the same as in the record.
When recalled impulse sent to different line if only the recall impulse arrives it is same. If an impulse and a different signal arrive then it is different. So when only 1 impulse arrives send this impulse to same mechanism which does not record information but record. S in command memory when not same 2 impulses meet and the record mechanism is on. Before recording an exchange takes place to get back the complete picture or feeling or movement. Learning an S command would stop this.
Whenever a voice or movement code comes in it will record Rd in command neuron. Read will be held on for a specific time. It will CRS when same, therefore CRS is S.
 
Page 10
 
Input Output
Recalls which is comparing -> desire -> decides -> speak + record Rd
                                                                                   -> to be interested + record I
                                                                                   -> to pay no attention S
                                                                                   -> to compare + record C
                                                                                   -> move + record Rd
                                                                                   -> expect + record E
                                                                                   -> to repeat + record Rd
 
It will repeat what it hears and feels in movement and speech.
It will learn that it only moves when I speak to it and only speaks when I tell it to.
 
 
To start it will Rd any move or voice.
I command it not to Rd noise of traffic etc.
 
I need a basic selection device such that it will Rd of any noise.
If I tell it not to it will show interest. It will associate certain positions, noises, and sights with what to do and not to do.
 
Has to have a feedback such that no interest in what it has said or done.
Have a centre
 
Input            no past experience        Output          interest
Input            voice + move                  Output          Rd
Input            not to do                         Output           stop
Input            Output                              Output          no interest
 
Input voice to associate with sight concept + movement concept.
It can learn to associate by forward reading until another sense concept comes along or a pattern is the same which has a different sense concept after it. This concept will be tagged same as the first.
 
Page 11
 
 
Device so if it is completely the same is recorded after or below. When it turns out to be same again S causes it.
Same unit recognizes patterns of same.
Reading can become automatic.
 
 
This S will have priority in recording blocking any other.
Anything not totally the same it will record the part that is the same.
In the case of movement or voice it will read if it is the same instead of record S record Rd.
If it is the same as a past record it CRS’s which records what happened in past. And if it comes into a stop it will not read off.
If comes into a new sight it will cause it to read.
4 commands   CRS read on to a stop S or P
                         Rd to read on
                         S to record S and switch CRS
                         St. to not Rd command
                         P If read on to P go back to Rd.
 
Page 12
 
 
Any brain has to understand. i.e. know what to do, know the (to expect) result; know the (reason for) cause.
 
It has to want to do this.
It has to be interested.
Information comes in. It recalls if it has recorded this information in the past. If it has no recollection it will be interested. It will want to understand. If it has recorded this information it will see if it understood it. If it did it will either, do something, expect something, have no interest in it or know not to do anything. It wants to find relationships i.e. what follows or what causes. It wants to find results or causes.
 
It likes that which interests it. It is interested in understanding. It is only interested in things unfamiliar with the present. It will remember the cause and result. If a cause comes along it is interested to see if the result gives it something to do. If the result is favourable it does it. If the result is non-favourable it does not do it. When it does something it produces a cause and this again interests it.
 
 
Page 13
 
 
Page 14
 
 
Fig 1 is a memory neuron
 
any impulses coming through F dendrite are passed on through B dendrite if impulse frequency is not same as recorded frequency of the neuron. If it is the same frequency a message is passed through axon. If the neuron has not record of any frequency it will record the first frequency it receives.
 
Item 1: The ear will receive sounds of varying frequency and loudness. These two (frequency and loudness) (there will be 2 ears) have to be changed into the frequency of the impulses going to the brain and through which wire they pass. The frequency of the sound could be directly proportional to the frequency of the impulses and the loudness proportional to the number of receptors stimulated. Therefore there should be a great many wires coming from the ear. Two types of ears possible: 1/ cochlea, 2/ diaphragm.
 
1/
 
 
2/ as in a telephone, Waves changed into frequencies and different wires by electric [sleve?] Used to determine amount of wave frequencies like in EEG analysis “see nerves and muscles by Robert Galambos page 114, 115 EEG analyses”
 
[On the following 8 pages]
 
Notes - top
 
Item 2: There will be two eyes.
A is the lens able to be focused either by stretching or moving forwards and backwards. B is the iris which is an automatic reflex see item 13.
C is the screen, detects electromagnetic radiation falling upon it. It could consist of small packets of chemical dies, pigments, not so likely though. Most likely consists of many electric cells metallic substances sheets or rods.
They should be able to detect the frequency and brightness of the light. Frequency can be proportional to the frequency of impulses coming from each light cell. The brightness can be proportional to the number of neurons stimulated. The direction can be proportional to which neurons or light cells are stimulated.
Information from the left half of each eye ball can go to left neuron decipherers.
 
Item 3: Muscles are for moving arms, fingers, head, body, eyes, ears, voice and wheels for moving feet or turning. Could consist of substance which contracts or expands on electric stimulation. It could be hydraulic using oil pressure. Muscles would have to be controlled directly proportional to the impulses frequency of commands. Where they move would be controlled by the co-ordination of muscles. How fast or hard would be controlled by the frequency of impulses as mentioned above. A hydraulic muscle is more practical and easier to obtain in 1968 than a substance which contracts or expands. There would be approximately 50 muscles.
 
Item 4: Voice
The voice can be an electric speaker. A vibrating cord is too hard to produce. The signal from the brain could be in impulses at certain frequencies on certain wires. This could be changed into use electric current of varying frequencies and amplitudes which would cause the speaker to vibrate due to the magnet.
 
Item 5: Transmission. The signals necessary to operate the robot could be transmitted over radio channels or could be put over telephone wires like an umbilical cord.
 
Item 6: This is the coordinator (centraciphilic? system) It contains basic circuits which have reflexes which can be controlled. (It is the place where consciousness is or is it?) See Item 19. Reflexes controlled to be consciousness
 
Item 7: The automatic unit contains basic circuits to make something do a continuous cycle of repetitive action. It can be concentrated on and also switched off at desire i.e. walking. If anything unusual happens it can signal the consciousness that something unusual is happening and it will attract the attention. This could be due to an irregularity like a sudden noise behind when you are concentrating on reading a book. It will contain automatic warning devices which will interrupt the conscious flow. It is very closely linked to the conscious. In fact it is nearly the consciousness. It will have a memory bank which will be able to switch different incoming impulses to the memory or to the automatic unit. It will switch recalls and read mechanisms. It will have a record of commands and will order them to be done subconsciously or consciously.
 
Item 8: Eye deciphering unit consists of analytical neurons.
These are divided into 2 parts. The 1st picks out lines angles shapes. The 2nd picks out groups of lines making objects. It picks out objects such as a book. If we think of a book we either see the word (book) or a picture of a book. This could be called a concept. These concepts are passed onto the memory. In this analysing unit an impression of 3D is obtained and movement is also noticed See Item 17
 
Item 9: The Ear deciphering unit consists of analytic neurons. These are very similar to the eye. D.U. divided into 2 areas. The 1st picks out noise from a specific direction, intensity or quality. The 2nd recognizes them as voice or car or thunder. This is passed onto the memory as a concept along with the visual concept. See Item 12.
 
Item 10: This is the memory consisting of memory neurons. They remember all concepts and images and interrelating relationships. It remembers movements and voices. If anything comes in it has recorded before the record is stimulated and the exact memory is recorded through the consciousness again with the original stimulation of that record. Any interrelationships are also concentrated on. If action is necessary appropriate neurons stimulated which remember that action is necessary.
 
Item 11: The concept of the movement in the memory triggered by the consciousness or what is seen heard etc. causes this analytical unit to tell the muscles how to move to obtain the result which the concept represents. This could be done by sending the concept backwards through the feeling decipher unit and sending the result to the muscles. See Item 21.
 
Item 12: Similarly as Item 11 this unit tells the speaker how to say the concept that is received from the consciousness. This also could be sending the concept in reverse through the hearing unit and sending the result to the speaker. See Item 9.
 
Item 13: Reflexes which cannot be concentrated on
This consists of the iris. “I” senses the intensity of light from the signals coming out of the wires from the eye leading to brain. The memory causes Iris to delight proportional to the light entering the “I”
 
Another reflex is the inner ear. This measures acceleration and balance from the information from inner ear. A memory bank automatically tells consciousness something is wrong. Consciousness takes over and corrects.
 
A thermometer to warn consciousness that it is too hot or too cold.
 
Item 14: Modification for ESP
Eyesight could be modified to give wider range of visible spectrum. It could have an extra eye to visualize radar and radio waves or to visualize ultraviolet x-ray and gamma rays.
 
Ears could be modified to hear ultrasonic.
 
A new addition could be added to the voice so it sent out ultrasonic blips which through its ear it could “see” things.
 
Strength could be very powerful.
 
Could have a laser connected to its conscious as a weapon tool or communications equipment.
 
Item 15: Impulses and code
 
A signal would look like this:
 
 
A could be one frequency, lower than C
B could be another frequency higher than C.
C could be the normal frequency which the detector or muscle would emit when no stimulation is present. Or the detector or muscle could transmit no signal when no stimulation and varying frequencies of impulses when there was stimulation.
Coding device would change this into different codes for muscles or voice and also would change different codes into this code.
 
Item 16: Sleep and processing
 
During sleep external sensory detectors could be turned off and so could muscles and voice. The mind could remain conscious and go through the last day experiences and thoughts wiping those neurons which have recorded useless information and record this information on tapes see Item 17. It could also catalogue the last days experiences into different categories (It could concentrate on what it did not have time to concentrate on when it was concentrating on other things gaining additional information) It could change over conscious actions to the automatic unit.
 
Item 17: A tape bank could be established to record useless information or to tape a complete experience or skill for a less sophisticated brain i.e. driving a car. A less sophisticated brain would just consist of an automatic unit. It could be connected up to a television set. It is the consciousness, so I could see and hear what it has heard and seen. It could connect itself to a typewriter so it could type a record of its experience or type some imagination it might have.
To use the television set we would use (the reverse process of) our eye deciphering unit, in reverse process. See Item 8.
 
Item 18: The only difficulty is to get it started. How will it record some of these automatic reflexes and how will it learn?  Take for example knowledge on how to move (Item 11). This knowledge will be gained from experience but in man it is eventually forgotten or we are not able to concentrate on it but we can still move when we want to.
Learning is the understanding of what to do in a situation. When it starts it will have a command to repeat everything it hears or feels in speech and movement. When one thing has been repeated and the same movement memorized. This will be put into automatic consciousness.
 
It will always want to concentrate on change or things that are different.
 
It will learn that through the reading of memory. It can cause hearing and feeling to change. It will have a desire for change or hate of same. It could also have a desire for feeling. This would make it enjoy work, a hate for lack of feeling to make it always want to feel, all feelings will be forgotten or recorded out of access to recall so it will want the same feeling because it is different i.e. not recalled.
 
 
Item 19: The consciousness or Thalamus
This deciphers the information from the memory. If action is necessary it relays it to the movement or speech areas. All concepts passing through consciousness are passed on to the memory.
When you are conscious of one thing you cannot concentrate on another. Therefore the consciousness can not record in the memory anything that is not concentrated on.
The automatic unit takes over here. It recalls from the memory by sending the impulses through from the eyes, ears, and feeling. If a similar record is in the memory this is stimulated. The original is recorded in the memory (1) at the same time. When the consciousness has compared records with originals this data is recorded after (1) (The consciousness contains basic desires and wants or commands, in the automatic unit which is the memory of the conscious. Consciousness and commands recorded in memory in chronological order. Recalls and compares what command.
 
Item 20: Nerves give the mind knowledge of where the muscles are. What they are doing. The code is the same as what is sent on through the movement channel.
 
Item 21: This translates the impulses into the concept of what position the muscles are at. This concept is the same as is given to the movement unit to carry out the concept. Most of the time, this is subconscious. Does not concentrate on where the muscles are. Therefore it will be mostly through the automatic unit Item 7. See Item 11.
 
Notes - top
 
1969 and 1970 but before 13th May 1970
 
[These notes were recorded in a brown Auckland Grammar School notebook. The numbers were added on 13th May 1970.
From then (note #122) onward all notes were also dated.]
 
1. A Robot: can see, hear, move muscles, speak and feel his movement, remember.
 
2. Information comes in on ears, eyes, and feeling. Information goes out on muscles and speech.
 
3. To move or speak it has a recording of all it can do and it just combines these recordings.
 
4. Information (Input) comes in. It tests if it is familiar i.e. has recorded it before. If not familiar; it has interest, it switches attention. If familiar; pays no attention, uses it to do something.
 
5. Take sight: Input familiar; no attention, interprets it into a command. That is it knows what to do or relates with words. Unfamiliar; interest (always trying to understand) remembers i.e. relates with a word or movement.
 
6. Take hearing: Input familiar; no attention or interprets it into a command. Relates it with a picture. Then finds a command (or just interest) i.e. records Unfamiliar; interest (always trying to understand) remembers i.e. relate with picture or movement.
 
7. Take feeling: Input familiar; no attention or use it to do something. Unfamiliar; interest, remembers it (always trying to understand)
 
8. Doing things (output) as a result of some input that it is recognized and is obeying or from eventually understanding by thinking and then realizing what to do.
 
9. Take Voice: From it hearing someone telling it to speak or from seeing something which it knows what will happen and speaks from what it feels or sees being interpreted into words.
 
10.  Take moving: From hearing a command or seeing.
 
11.  If it is to do things it will have to want to do them. We will have to have taught it how to do it. It will eventually do things from speech commands. Therefore it has to learn how to interpret speech. It will have to have concepts of actions before it can interpret speech into concepts. Therefore first see things, then hear words and relate them with what it sees. Soon feel and hear things and relate words with them. But it won’t do anything physical. So we have to put in it a recording of what it can do in actions and speech. We could make it talk and act and it could learn to trigger action and speech on its own. Then learn to relate words with what it does itself. Actually relating words with things comes later than learning to relate (objects) sight and feeling and hearing with things that it likes and dislikes.
 
12.  We can tell it what it dislikes and likes. What it learns, that is combinations of movements or sounds can be recorded together and the automatic unit can repeat or do something which the mind has started and the automatic unit has carried on while the attention has been switched to another input or output message.
 
13.  What happens to information (Input) which is not being paid attention to? It goes through the attention automatic system to see if anything is wrong or different. If so attention is paid to it. If not it disappears out of the system, lost forever. I.e. a change will cause it to pay attention.
 
14.  On feeling sight and sound is a mechanism such that if intensity is too high senses are protected. Also pain is brought about which will give an automatic no!  in memory.
 
15.  No how can it do all these things by the fundamental operations? It can switch its attention. It can tell whether something is similar or different. It can read off a recording. It can record input.
 
16.  Feeling can not be remembered. It is just used to check movements. No!
 
17.  What are we going to do when we have taught it something incorrectly i.e. taught it to like something it should not have?
 
18.  When it experiences something it has not experienced before it should be interested in it and looking for something to do as a reaction to it. It will be looking to see if it should like or hate etc.
 
19.  Learning is the process of gaining experience on what to do when something happens.
 
20.  When a baby experiences something and pays attention if it has no result which is pleasing the baby soon learns to disregard it.
 
21.  At birth a lot of actions are reflexive or automatic but as they grow they learn to take over these actions and to control them to get a desired result or to produce a result which will bring pleasure.
 
22.  We can supply what is wrong and right, what is good and bad, what is liked and not liked and when it refers back to see whether something is right or wrong, good or bad, liked or not liked it picks the latest reference for this.
 
23.  Right at the start why is it going to do anything? We will have auto reflexes which will cause it to do something. This will start it off.
 
24.  In doing a calculation in its mind it might want to remember a figure just calculated. It will be able to scan its memory in different amounts and to find how to scan its memory for this figure it will scan whole memory to see how it did it before. Then it will scan just the past few seconds. Soon it will know by an automatic learning process just to scan the last part of its memory. This will become a habit and learned whenever it wants a recently calculated figure it will know where to scan. This would be an internally learnt thing to do. This sort of thing could be a habit of the centre unit that is recorded in its own separate memory.
 
25.  We need a central control unit to regulate reading, recalling memory, switching of sensors. This central control unit might have its own memory.
 
26.  Since feeling can not be remembered let us have a different memory (cerebellum) for feeling which will only record feelings which have not been recorded before. This will then be able to be read off to move muscles.
 
27.  Let this cerebellum be in the main memory but just let it have the above properties. This will enable muscle action to be associated with sight and hearing.
 
28.  Central control can do the following:
       a. Switch consciousness to different senses or parts of senses.
       b. Switch an action to automatic.
       c. Recall any part of memory.
       d. Read off which would cause it to do that thing.
       e. Read off which would be placed through the memory and recall again.
 
29.  This is follows on from 22. This could be in the form of 3 messages, a No signal, a Yes signal and a neutral signal.
 
30.  Nothing which has been recorded is recorded again. So as time passes everything is generalised. All the little things are missed out before something is done and therefore the latest record is recalled first and eventually the reasons are not looked into.
 
31.  Therefore the control on what area is recalled is most important. It can control so it recalls everything in one section, one section after or before another and similar ones.
 
32.  Does not have to compare a pattern over a time period. If one thing turns out to be same it will look forward and have a look to see what should be coming next and if it is reinforced by the next input the pattern is reinforced. If the next input is different the pattern is not reinforced, putters out.
 
33.  Across the attention device is an automatic reflex which compares all 3 senses with last recording any big change will (be) cause attention to switch.
 
34.  The first 100 neurons will have 4 states to show sound sight or feel and inner ear. This neuron has to be same for a recall – 1 neuron = 10 bits.
 
35.  To associate or recognize a pattern over a time.
 
36.  When it does something it has to read off as a series of frames.
 
37.  Brain mechanisms.
     1)Attention can be switched to:
           (a) Sight and parts of sight
           (b) Sound and parts of sound
           (c) Feeling and parts of feeling
           (d) Replay of memory and parts of memory
When attention switched input is remembered and recalled at same time.
     2)Everything will be recalled.
     3)Read off memory:
           (a) into output except sight
           (b) into memory and recall takes place automatically
 
38.  When it records something in first 100 neurons it will do something and what it does will be recorded in another 10 or so neurons under the record.
 
39.  If input comes in recall takes place, no similarities, nothing done. Then if we have recorded in last 10 neurons a command it will do it when the second input comes in and is recalled similar enough to first input to do command.
 
40.  Can we record a negative?
 
41.  When something is recalled it has to be associated with something. Everything has to have something to do associated with it.
 
42.  In recall the recall is taken place going back in time and when something is found which is familiar it stops any other thing from coming forth, i.e. latest similar thing is recalled.
 
43.  Some input comes in from sight, is unfamiliar, puts into operation reflex on attention so anything different will be attended to. Sight input familiar records fact it is familiar.
 
44.  Muscle input unfamiliar: records it automatically of course. It looks for associations. It could try to read it off to output.
 
45.  Muscle input familiar: records familiar, looks ahead for what was done. If negative after was done choice of another thing to do, does it or looks underneath for what was done here recorded, looks ahead to negative or have recorded with other inputs.
 
46.  We will have the Rob learn muscles before anything else. Brain mechanisms before muscles.
 
47.  How to learn to look ahead proportional to similarity or that is the reading ahead has to be flexible in that it could read ahead to look for a negative sign or for some particular aspect.
 
48.  If something has just been read off to memory when recall acts the last read off is not counted because it is the same.
 
49.  Set a limit on how much it has to look a head, about 20 frames, 2sec. or 3sec.s. No! It has to be able to think and go ahead looking for what it did after something. How could have this so that if it doesn’t find negative within ~ 20-30 frames it does it?
 
50.  Brain should be able to recall a pattern of things over a time and also a combination of smaller concepts that take up one frame, i.e. the ‘read’ concept.
 
51.  Associate between 2 frames by the ‘same’ concept be recorded and then the thing it associated with has to be in one of the other two senses.
 
52.  Input comes in recalled, memorized it is either associated with some other sense or something is done.
 
53.  Let’s have the read off mechanism such that it can only read off sight patterns into memory and only read off sound and feeling into voice and muscles. In this way it could not recollect the sound or feel of something without it experiencing it. So in this way sounds and feelings can be put into sight association but can’t associate a sound with a picture. No!
 
54.  I can recollect what something sounds like and feels like. I associate a picture with a voice etc. I never associate a voice with a face just seen, but will associate a face with a voice just heard.
 
55.  So when recall takes place looking for a picture to associate with it.
 
56.  Association with a picture is automatic. It will have all its operations recorded. They are replay in memory, replay output.
 
57.  We have to put in it what it has to do after something is the same and after it does one of the brain mechanisms or if you don’t want to put in it what it has to do you have to teach it. You have to have a set of rules for what it has to do after something. So we break it down to fundamental operations, i.e.
     What to do after negative sign
     What to do after something is same
     What to do after read off into memory
     What to do after read off into muscles
     What to do after read off into voice
     What to do after switch (sense) attention
 
58.  A lot of these brain mechanisms are done in different situations often depending on the information coming in.
 
59.  So in humans we see, hear, feel, taste, and smell and either we recognize it or don’t recognize it. We only sense one sense at a time. Depending on what it is we ignore it, use it to coordinate muscles (in case of feel) so that a desired objective is accomplished. If desired objective is not accomplished we try to accomplish it. High intellect has a will where by things are done not in accordance with direct desires.
 
60.  Now how does a baby learn some of the basic things? By trial and error (random) punishment and trying again to do thing with least trouble or hurt to its desires each time not doing the same thing i.e. realizing what will happen if it did the same thing. First it has to have a no. of things to do to be able to try one. In a baby desires and wants are programmed for survival and these reflexes act as a basic foundation and guidance to its behaviour.
 
61.  Cerebellum is a subconscious brain which learns to modify behaviour, co-ordinate behaviour, i.e. balance is one of its operations. (Could automatic be one of its functions?)
 
62.  In man what he does next is dependent on what he desires or what to do next. His wants are for self survival, food, sexual desires, sensory stimulation; some desires have priority over others. Desire for no pain is high priority but over all the will has control i.e. mind can conquer desires.
 
63.  Now our robot has no desires so we have to have some system of adapting it to what we want it to do. How can we get a robot to choose or teach it to?
 
64.  The no signal can be pain and pain is a mechanism such that if too much strain is put on a muscle it lets the brain know. The no signal would be pain in all its muscles.
 
65.  The 10 cells below 100 which record what brain mechanisms are done is a control centre. It will record what is done in certain situations and will learn how to do things with certain inputs and situations through trial and error and (reward) punishment. In a human of my age this is a nearly automatic thing called thinking and I know what to do when I want to think - cognition. It has become automatic and the automatic thinking process is all that is seen by psychologists. They can not see the subdivisions of the automatic process of thinking. They do not realize that thinking has to be learned just as any other operation. In humans I would say quite a bit of thinking is reflexive built in at birth.
 
66.  Central control - When something is the same recorded in central control and central control goes about doing the operations it did before in the similar case. If things are different central control relies on random generator to generate a random instruction. 1 of; switch attention to sight, feeling, hearing. It can not read off because it has no reference to a (or a) memory cell to read off.
 
67.  Since we want it to have interest when something is different we should not have it switch its attention either. So when something is the same the fact that it is the same is recorded (and recalls if the same signal has been encountered before. After a same signal we will program it to read off central control of what happened just after the place where the same signal came from) and central control looks for what it did last time when the similar case happened. If nothing is there, i.e. it was different in the similar case to anything before it will then rely on the random generator to either, switch attention to sight, feeling, and hearing. Read off the things that happened before into either (feeling) muscles or (hearing) speech. This happens if something was there. Read off the things that happened before into memory -> or read off central control. What ever it does will be recorded in central control. Or read off central control into central control to see what happened before when this situation was encountered. So the random generator can cause the central control to read off its own recording into its memory and thereby recall or see if any command it has done before is familiar. If it is familiar (familiar recorded and recalled we have programmed in central control after SC to RC) it causes random generator to generate one of the (above) commands which would read off what was after the similar command.
 
68.  When it reads out something into speech or muscles this is not recorded in memory cells but the fact that it read out is recorded. Sight pictures can be recorded in memory cells from memory. So can speech and muscles. But speech and muscles are not recorded if done.
 
69.  The attention has a reflex action anything different coming in on a sense the attention is switched automatically and the command is recorded in central control. This can be overridden by command from central control to switch to a sense. When central control is reading off memory into memory reflex in attention is operating but when central control commands attention to switch to something it will switch and reflex will not be able to switch attention while 1 frame 1/10 sec. is being recorded.
 
70.  Soon the random generator is not used but when something is familiar it recalls what it has done in past see below.
 
71.  This [note 67.] might not be necessary since when the central control does a command it automatically records it and recalls it. When it recalls it finds it familiar it will call upon random generator. If it is familiar command it reads off commands after it. If no commands calls upon random generator. NB only a random generated command will be unfamiliar.
 
72.  Now we have to have our No or negative signal. It acts as a deterrent to those things we do not want it to do. If it moves a muscle in the wrong way it will get pain from that muscle. If it does something we don’t want it to we will give it pain in all its muscles. Pain will be recorded in the memory as the first trace or cell recording underneath it will be the central command instruction which will command the central control not to do that command if the pain is encountered.
 
73.(a) Now we have to have a direct association with the pain and the thing that was done that we did not want done. (b) If it does something and we tell it not to it could associate the ‘not to’ with something done in between the doing of the recorded thing and the telling not to do it.
 
74.  So we have operations
   Switch attention to Sight SAS
   Switch attention to Hearing SAH
   Switch attention to Feeling SAF
   Record fact that an input is the same SM
   Record fact that a command is same SC (not needed)
   Record command to read off memory into muscles RMF
   Record command to Read off central control RC
   Of sight Record command to Read off Memory into Memory RMMS
   Of hearing Record command to Read off Memory into Memory RMMH
   Of feeling Record command to Read off Memory into Memory RMMF
   Record command to Read off memory into speech RMH
   Command to call upon random generator for memory command GM (No)
 
75.  Two lots of instructions:
     Memory instructions       Central Control instructions
 
 
76.  [as in diagram above]
 
77.  What commands are we going to program in behind the No or pain when it is the same? It will be a command to central control to place behind the last executed thing a No signal. This would not negate the RC or SC or GC or SM, GM but only SA? And RM?? Instructions. It would put them in a unity form such that negated SAS would be a one command able to be recalled recorded compared familiar etc.
 
78.  Also in memory a central control memory cell will be occupied by the negated SAs and RMs and behind each SA? and RM? will be a GM command minus the SA or RM command corresponding to the negated SA or RM. So it will generate a RM or SA command but not that one which was negated.
 
79.  If our inhibitory signal is to work it must be associated with the thing we want negated. Therefore we could let the similarity only be noticed if 5 out of 5 frames (memory cells) are similar in a row.
 
80.  Or we could start off by having it record only one frame every 1/2 sec and slowly increasing it as the no. of times we negated it decrease. Or we could have so it wouldn’t do anything until 2 sec’s had passed or it had a no signal. If one frame is read off to the muscles or voice that output will last for 1/10 sec.
 
81.  The senses are accumulative too averaging the sound every 1/10sec averaging the picture every 1/10 sec and averaging the movement every 1/10 sec.
 
82.  When it reads out to muscles or voice the first bit is used to signify whether it goes to muscles or voice. To have any similarity between any memory frames have to have that bit the same.
 
83.  The Automatic Unit. When a pattern of activities has been laid down in memory with all the correct commands the central control can switch to the automatic unit which will do all these things in a precise order and keep on going until stopped by the central control. If the automatic unit comes up with a difficulty it will notify central control.
 
84.  This automatic unit might not be necessary if the central control unit can work in milliseconds and all the time the most recent learning is used.
 
85.  If we have an automatic unit for muscular control only it could not rely on the central control unit. It would just receive input and it would only take 1 recall to find what has to be done next.
 
86.  [This item refers back to item 79 and 80.] If we have this we could have a bit to record whether this frame has been found similar. When 5 of these bits have been found in a row we could do something. The fact that it is similar is also recorded out! Not right.
 
87.  This system of bits could be used also to reference where the Read off instruction should read off. When something is the same we have SM recorded. Then we get a GM which could RC or at the reference bit or could we have an RM instruction a different part of memory i.e. the latest frame recorded which had been recalled also, or to read off the frame referenced by the bit or bits which is before the frame now being dealt with, or read off the frame referenced by the bit or bits which is after the frame now being dealt with. In this last case if it is the 1st recall this frame after the one being dealt with will be the latest frame recorded.
 
88. These RMMS, RMMH, RMMF could either read off that which was found to be similar or that which was after what was found to be similar.
 
89.  The 1st would be done to obtain a new reference which was similar either before or after. The second would be to find out what happened or what was done.
 
90.  A random generator is no good. We have to have the similar test in a crude form. i.e. If memory is only 2 seconds old input comes in and it is different to every thing so it randomly generates something to do No! This is wrong.
 
91.  We should have it take the thing that is closest to is the most similar to. It might be completely different but it is the most similar thing in memory at that time. In this way it will be a random generation of things done.
 
92.  When we tell it something is wrong or push the ‘no’ button shall we let it learn what to do when it’s not meant to do something or shall we program it so when it receives a ‘no’ signal it will know it did something wrong? In man I feel his reflexes are programmed for survival and automatically react to a ‘no’ signal but the brain does not always automatically react to a ‘no’ signal e.g. pain. The brain can learn to follow the automatic reflexes or it can overpower the reflex and feel the pain. S the brain can do something it is not meant to. So if we program the brain to react to the ‘no’ signal it will never be able to do something it has been told not to do.
 
93.  If we go about thinking of the central control as a separate unit it will receive a signal from a recall test telling it whether the input that just came in is similar or dissimilar to something in memory. The result will be the input to the central control. It will go through central control as input does go through the memory (i.e.) that is it will be recorded and recalled.
 
94.  What the central control unit will do cannot be recorded like the muscle movement is recorded and that record is read out to do the thing. What I mean to say is that the reading off of memory can [not] be done by us and the record of that reading off is stored / recorded in the central control and when the reading off of memory is required it could read off the record of how to read off memory. This can be done for the switching of attention. Attention will be switched by the automatic reflex connected to the attention and the record of this switch will be recorded in central control so it can be read off to switch attention when attention needs or is wanted to be switched by the central control. This is to say the mind is shaped by the reflexes. (mind learns from the reflexes)
 
95.  The central control will receive a similar signal. It will read off what was done in the frame that was similar and will do it. Read off the info in central control at the similar location and put into working module of central control.
 
96.  We must have switch attention to memory as well as switch attention to sight, sound and feel and it will only be able to read off memory into memory 1 or 2 or 3? frames every 1/10 sec. so that the reading off or thinking will occur as fast as things in the outside world and won't use up so many frames it will also slow down its operation so we can keep up with it and teach it when it goes wrong.
 
97.  And since it goes through the attention system attention can be focused on any part of the frame any aspect of it.
 
98.  Sight and attention: I can pay attention to a spot on the wall and my attention is on a specific very small area of the retina. I also can pay attention to something out of the corner (side) of my eye. I can stare at one thing but not see it but see something out of the corner of my eye but not in so much detail as if I looked straight at it. So my attention can switch not only to sight sound and feel but to a specific area of sight or even just the general picture of what I’m looking at. Now when you imagine something you combine the small specific sight areas into a general picture. Like a man with green togs a straw hat walking on a beach, each specific thing is seen in memory and then combined to form a general picture.
 
99.  Feeling and attention: attention can be given to any specific part and also to any general area or the whole area. I feel we will have to do this in my robot, but this will involve many different types of commands and possibilities may be not able to be recorded in the limited central control memory. Also notice the ear can concentrate on different sounds, voices and cars, motors and music while they are all coming in at once. I.e. they filter out the stuff to concentrate on.
 
100. Therefore why not make the attention another sense like eye, ear and muscles? When I refer to feeling in humans I mean actual feel such as heat, pressure etc. but the robot won’t have this so think of feel as the feedback from the muscles i.e. position and action of joints and muscles. So with every frame may be 3 or 4 (= 30 or 40 bits) neurons is preserved for the position of the attention at that frame.
 
101. Then we don’t have to have the 1st 2 bits of a frame for the differentiation of the input from sound, sight and muscles. The 3 or 4 neurons will supply this and they will have to be identified for any frame to be identical. Memory is made up of frames. 1 Frame is recorded every 1/10 of a sec. or 10 frames per sec.
 
102. I frame consists of 100 neurons and 1 neuron consists of 10 bits. So 1000 bits of information a 1/10 sec. 10,000 bits every second. If it is to last 50 years. 50x365x24x3600 x10000 = 120x365x36x1000x10,000
 
103. 432x365x10,000x10,000 = 1.578x10^13 divide by 2 if only works 1/2 a day = approx. 8x10^12 bits (might big)
 
104. If these neurons containing 3 condition of the attention are read off they will change the attention to that condition.
 
105. This attention condition is sort of an address and when the frame is read out the frame goes to that address to be executed.
 
106. So all central control is interested in is reading off into external function or internal memory. When the attention is switched by the control of the brain we have a read off signal which reads off the condition of the attention wanted, to the attention device.
 
107. When a frame is read off into memory again the attention will always switch to this, i.e. this will take precedence over all other input.  - (Added later- most likely 24th May 1971) What will the attention condition be on that remembered frame, not the same as before, put a 1 in a certain bit to indicate it is a concept of the brain.
 
108. Can we split brain operations into short term and long term operations? no need to 24th May 1971 146, 147
 
109. Must look at the process where something is done and the ears hear what is said, what happens etc.
 
110. Must consider association and what jumps in time are taken to get the associated picture etc.
 
111. It can learn but if we want it to learn to think it must have the capacity to do so before it can learn to.
 
112. When it (we) comes to a situation it (we) has (have) done before it (we) is (are) able to recall the pertinent facts relating to this past incident and immediately conclude what to do or not to do. The reading the next frame after a same signal is meant for this function but not correct. We should have something like read ahead for next picture or sound or feel or pain. We are trying to breakdown the association function of the brain into some fundamental steps.
 
113. Association can be achieved by when a same signal is recorded the next frame with a recording from a different sense is read off.
 
114. Association will be achieved by this method because in recording the incident in the past the attention is switched when the learning situation takes place.
 
115. So sound will be able to be associated with sight and muscles and muscles with the other 2 and sight with the other 2. Sight cannot be associated with sight such as in reading where a word is read and a picture seen. Does this take place or is the word associated with its sound and the sound with the picture?
 
116. Now, do we need the pain (no signal) in a form such as the brain understands it before starting or can it learn what the pain or no signal means by the reflex action or by learning? Can this form of association provide us with a way of teaching it what the no signal means without programming about the no signal before hand?
 
117. In this way the first frame of that concept will come to be the concept and the frame might not be enough to represent the concept.
 
118. What happens when brain reads out a muscle position which is completely different to position of the muscles? Muscles won't be able to move to this position in 1/10 sec. I feel need for a continuous read process so when reads out a voice sound it reads out complete sound not just a 1/10 sec. of sound.
 
119. 4 things to be solved
           a/ past memory long time ago.
           b/ brain mechanisms for short term memory.
           c/ attention
           d/ automatic system and brain mechanisms to switch on and off.
           e/ learning of memory functions
 
120. Things to think about: The brain memory has to make concepts of everything. Concepts are always related to a change in environment. I feel memory is too detailed in any change it might record.
 
121. About reinforcement of learning. The no signal (pain) will be recorded in the main memory as another type of sensory input. There will be no programmed central control function to react to pain but the reflexes will be programmed to do the reacting to pain and the robot will learn what to do after the reflexes reacted. See every stimulus must have a response. Pain is a stimulus. What is the response? Response is a complicated muscular movement or crying. A baby makes trial and error movement to stop pain. Each movement having been done before when pain was felt not necessarily from the same muscles or part of body. Therefore by this time baby has learnt to associate concepts (key words).
 
122. Association a memory function. If it has learnt to associate what was the reinforcing agent for the learning of memory functions. Can we have association of memory functions so that after one memory function done it will associate - remember what was done after that memory function in the past and do it.
 
13th May 1970
 
[On this date all the preceding paragraphs were numbered. Number 122 was used twice]
 
122. From 3 - The brain would have a record of the concept of a movement. The cerebellum would co-ordinate this concept with the present position of the muscles and put the concept into a (language) code the muscles would respond to.
 
123. From 14 - This automatic no will cause a reflex action just like in a baby (crying when aloud noise is heard, struggling when held rigid). Will such reflexes be necessary or will we have different reflexes because we want a different purpose for it?
 
124. From 32 - The human brain does not seem to record concepts like in a regular array but distinguishes concepts by a change in sensory input by a regular array I mean a picture every 1/10sec. It seems to record each picture that it sees. So if eyes stay absolutely still it records that picture. Only when eyes move to new spot on scene being viewed does it record another picture. Thus it is a change in the sensory input that causes a picture to be recorded. This is why I wrote 33. (73(b) would not be possible) (solves 117,118) Also a new picture recorded when staring at a constant scene if one changes one's attention and back.
 
125. From 62-63 - In man his emotions and desires are a very complex mechanism for the basic punishment and reward necessary for learning situations.
 
126. From 65 - Thinking is going to be the doing of a sequence of basic brain mechanisms. Different sequences will result in a different way of thinking, or approaching a problem i.e. of how to solve the problem. Like in (24) ok. So it will try different sequences of brain mechanisms and get different results. When it then wants that result it will associate the brain mechanisms that it did to get that result and then do them.
 
127. 2 questions:
           1/ How will it go about doing different sequences of brain mechanisms?
           2/ How will it know what result it wants (or is wanted of it) in a certain case?
 
128. From 96 - Should the reading off of memory record into memory again take place at 1 frame 1/10 sec. or should it be speeded up?
 
129. From 97 - Very interesting idea but I don't think necessary. Each frame is a pure concept.
 
130. From 124 - A test for this is to look at one spot and have no change in attention and see how many times you can record that concept i.e. a picture.
 
131. A test for association, take a sound or feel or picture in your memory and continually recall it to your conscious again.
 
132. Consider recognition: of a tune say if it is slowed down or speed up. The concept of a note. How long does the sound have to last before you make a second concept of it?
 
133.[There is no paragraph numbered 133]
 
134. When I think, there seems to be an automatic mechanism which immediately converts my concept or concepts into words or speech which is not spoken but just recalled - read off into memory again.
 
135. There seems to be 3 memories, short term, long term which records events, what happened, and immediate memory which seems to have recorded how to do things. That is we don't have to think back in our long-term memory to remember what to do when something happens.
 
136. The emotional attitude toward something acts as another separate memory associated with something which helps in the recall process as an extra way of associating. The emotional state can have a large degree of change from pain to neutral to ecstasy.
 
28th June 1970
 
137. Concept formation: How many concepts are made of a constant tone or a still picture? I feel the duration before a second concept is formed can vary considerably when the input is constant. An exercise to understand this is to stare at one spot for a long time and try introspection of your attention and concept formation of the spot. One loses attention toward it and then pays attention to it again thus recording another concept. Similarly with a tone.
 
138. Does the attention pay attention to something which is being done as the record is read out to the outputs or does it record the resultant "feedback" after the thing is done or is the original record read off straight into memory as it is done. Obviously for automatic output nothing is recorded.
 
139. The brain mechanism seems to have a separate sort of brain i.e. they record inputs i.e. similarity, unfamiliarity, dislikes or no signal recalled, and the no signal straight from something done if this does exist (see 142). It also does output i.e. recall read out and associate (different ways), switch attention.
 
140. When I’m trying to pay attention to a sound which I can’t hear my mind seems to think of that sound and I try to pay attention harder. Maybe this is a means by which the brain can switch the attention to the appropriate frequency of sound that is to be heard i.e. reading off a memory of the sound gives the attention the address location to attend to.
 
25th July 1970
 
141. All the addresses of attention can be negated or changed so that when a feeling is recalled the address location is changed so the brain knows it has been recalled and did not come straight from the senses. This in effect doubles all the possible addresses.
 
142. Pain is the feeling which is recorded in the brain. The no signal is the brain mechanism input which comes with or from a pain signal from the senses. The pain may be recorded and recalled. Instead of a same signal being given to the brain mechanism part there is a no signal given to the brain mechanism as input.
 
143. The emotions as I call them are the states of brain concerning dislikes and likes. The emotions of this robot should consist of 2 states, the dislike or 'no' state or no signal and the neutral state. There shall be no like state because this will give the robot a drive or ego to do something which it wants i.e. likes. Thus the robot will not do those things we teach it not to and it will do those things we tell it to but it will have no drive to do something we don't tell it to do or tell it not to do.
 
5th Dec. 1970
 
144. I have been trying to solve the problem of how the brain mechanism will learn: It will use a comparison between what it is after and what it is accomplishing to give it the punishment/reward necessary for learning.  Comment added on 17th Jan 1971 - "goal seeking"
 
Notes - top   Notes: 1970   Notes: 1971
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