Some time in 1968

Page 1: Ideas Robot        [Page numbers were added to the original notes in November 2011]

Only has to consist of brain, two senses (eyes and ears).
No digestive system. It has muscles of some description. Skin Skeleton the chest and body can be filled with memory banks or analysing equipment for the brain. It must have speech. I must consider source of energy, maybe battery or straight from the plug. (How about nuclear? Ho)  It needs some means of travel i.e. legs and feet. A walkie-talkie set so I can communicate with it while I’m out.

It has to have an inner ear so it can stabilize itself automatically.  It has to be sensitive to infrared ultra violet x-rays and gamma rays. This will give it a larger field of vision. It has to be a water proof skin. Have to study how the ear works. How will the frequencies it hears be transmitted into electric impulses? The range of sound frequency it is able to hear will be greater than mans.

Memory has to record frequencies of electric impulses. It also has to be permanent so that when it is wanted only that frequency will respond that was recorded and is not to be wiped out when it is replayed or wanted.

Once the cell which has recorded the frequency has been used to record and holds a bit of information. It will not be able to record another impulse but will be able to tell whether these impulses are the same or different from original impulse recorded in the cell. It will not be able to change the impulse passing; will let it pass on without distorting it. If it turns out to be the same as the original impulse, the impulse will be channeled back to the conscious concentrating unit.

Automatic can be concentrated on or can not be conce. autom.

Page 2: Electronic brain continued

The Eye: Each light detector gives a different rate of impulses depending upon the frequency of light falling upon it. The mind can only concentrate on one specific region of the detectors which will be detecting the central object the eye is directed at.

The ear will give different rates of impulses directly proportional to the frequency of sound falling upon it. The eye will have an iris which will be automatically controlled depending on light intensity. It needs 2 eyes which can give 3D images. It needs 2 ears to detect direction of sound.

Muscles will have to be made of some substance which will contract proportional to intensity of impulses or frequency. If it’s impulses then intensity will have to have something that will change the intensity proportional to frequency. I will have to have a coordination part in the brain. This will select what the consciousness will concentrate on. I will also have an automatic coordinator for parts which will have to be automatic and not able to be concentrated upon. I will also need an automatic coordinator for parts which can be concentrated upon and also made automatic when the concentration switches to other things. 

A voice will be supplied by a speaker.

Memory has to be able to trace or put down, in a readable way, frequencies of impulses and that is all. We cannot have interference from radio waves or power lines. All wires should be well insulated.

The brain will be programmed by its senses and the memory will remember the consequences of every move. It will remember incorrect answers and correct answers.

Page 3: Electronic Brain for robot

It must consist of a permanent memory which slowly fills up and temporary memory.

The human brain can only concentrate on one fact or bit of knowledge at a time. Other things done are done automatically without being conscious of it. Being conscious is to concentrate on something. 

I must take into consideration the time factor of brain and speed at which the voice goes.

Page 4

I need a part to separate muscle impulses from eye impulses from ear impulses coming in which will be called coordinator. Where the consciousness exists is in the coordinator.

Page 5: EB Rob

What causes someone to ask questions? They have something they want. 

How about a magnetic tape system for it to recall record or store impulses on? The robot might have to be disconnected from the EB. Impulse transmitted between them by radio waves. This enables the senses to move around giving a wider scope for the EB. Have a better understanding of the wiring. Have a better understanding of the impulses used. Have a unit which can record from the E.B. all the information need for one skill e.g. driving a car. The robot learns how to drive. Then it turns on this unit and records all the experiences and judgments necessary for driving. This can later be put into a smaller brain in the car which could drive a car automatically.

Neurons have to record and compare record in chronological order and detail.

Question: What if two impulses come in at the same time? How can we record in chronological order? How can we recall at the same time as record? How can we make one neuron only record an impulse and not let them all record the same impulse? 

Page 6

Blue Sense – memory familiar – no – interest and record

Blue Sense – memory familiar – yes – do I understand – no – interest

Blue sense -> memory familiar – yes

White sense – memory familiar – no – interest

White sense – memory familiar yes – do I understand – no – interest

Blue sense – memory familiar – yes – do I understand – yes – expect white
Expected white sense – memory familiar – no

White sense memory familiar – no – do I understand yes -> expected blue

Orange sense – memory familiar – no – interest

Blue sense – memory familiar – yes – do I understand – expect orange or blue

Blue Sense – memory familiar – yes – do I understand – yes – expect white

Blue word sense – memory familiar – no – interest

Blue word sense – memory familiar – yes – do I understand – yes 
                                                                                           – expect white or blue word
                                                                                                       Say blue word

Blue word sense – memory familiar – yes – do I understand

Blue sight S, mf, N, R+I   Blue sight S mf y DU N R+I
Blue sight S mf, y, DU, y, R + Ex B. White sight S mf N R+I white sight 
mf, y, DU, N, R+I  Blue sight S mf y DU y R+Ex B or Ex White

(Knowing what to do) understanding involves recording  repeating seeing if he wants it recalling, moving, speaking, paying no attention, paying attention, expecting, comparing, deciding concluding.

Page 7.0:  The consciousness in the same unit

Mr A meets Mr B. Mr A is unfamiliar with Mr A’s record of what should be here. Therefore recalls rest of memory. He is familiar in the past and can notice any changes between present and past. Recall for name which follows face.

Mr A meets lion. Lion is unfamiliar with Mr A’s record of what should be here. Therefore recalls rest of memory. He is familiar in the past and can recall what should be done.

Mr A meets wife. Wife is familiar with Mr A’s record of what should be here. Therefore recalls what he should do.

Mr A meets Mr C. Mr C is unfamiliar with Mr A’s record of what should be here. Therefore recalls rest of memory. He is unfamiliar in the past and interested in him.

If unfamiliar with past experience or results then open senses. If familiar with past experience or causes or results it wants to know what to do. If it is familiar with past experience causes or results and it knows what to do it does it.

Page 7.1:  Memory Neuron

We have to add a delay system so that the last memory circuit can’t be recalled for a second after it has been recorded. All circuits not having any record also must be able to be recalled. Need some system such that the record impulse allows the record to be recalled. There will be a delay for backwards impulse to notify the next neuron to record. Out wire will complete the circuit to power supply which supplies power for senses.
If one line of neurons turns out to be the same other lines on either side are stimulated or read out.

Consciousness, where is the minds eye or minds ear?

Page 7.2: What does the Rob have to do?

Answer any questions, obey commands.

After say 3 recalls giving same this pattern is read into the automatic unit.

Page 7.3

It will do what it is told.

It will have to remember and thereby know how to do it. Therefore its basic learning command is to repeat whatever it hears and feels in speech and movement. This will give a resultant hear and feel which will be remembered. [Feeling is being used to mean the sense of touch in these early notes.]

It has to have a selective mechanism such that it selects things to do. If it is wrong it is told so. If it is right it is told so by punishment or reward thereby knowing what to do and what not to do.

Page 8

Desire for something different the same unit is under control of desire.
Same unit does what the different unit wants
Whenever it reads, A is open. If there is no command then recall.
Desire for a difference (similarity) which will bring understanding same unit does the understanding.
Learning is the process understanding. Understanding is knowing what to do. It is memorized. It is interested in understanding.
Desire for difference gives understanding, gives survival. Survival lets him find differences.
Same unit once it understands it will not record.
Punishment is not letting it understand. Soon learn in the same situations in which he can’t do anything and same situation in which he can understand.

Page 9

To start will be on for voices or movements.
Sight information S + CRS
Voice or none information in St or Rd

Need a device to show whether it is the same as in the record.
When recalled impulse sent to different line if only the recall impulse arrives it is same. If an impulse and a different signal arrive then it is different. So when only 1 impulse arrives send this impulse to same mechanism which does not record information but record. S in command memory when not same 2 impulses meet and the record mechanism is on. Before recording an exchange takes place to get back the complete picture or feeling or movement. Learning an S command would stop this.
Whenever a voice or movement code comes in it will record Rd in command neuron. Read will be held on for a specific time. It will CRS when same, therefore CRS is S.

Page 10

Input Output
Recalls which is comparing -> desire -> decides -> speak + record Rd
                                                                                   -> to be interested + record I
                                                                                   -> to pay no attention S
                                                                                   -> to compare + record C
                                                                                   -> move + record Rd
                                                                                   -> expect + record E
                                                                                   -> to repeat + record Rd

It will repeat what it hears and feels in movement and speech.
It will learn that it only moves when I speak to it and only speaks when I tell it to.

To start it will Rd any move or voice. 
I command it not to Rd noise of traffic etc.

I need a basic selection device such that it will Rd of any noise.
If I tell it not to it will show interest. It will associate certain positions, noises, and sights with what to do and not to do.

Has to have a feedback such that no interest in what it has said or done.
Have a centre

Input            no past experience         Output          interest
Input            voice + move                  Output          Rd
Input            not to do                         Output          stop
Input            Output                            Output          no interest

Input voice to associate with sight concept + movement concept.
It can learn to associate by forward reading until another sense concept comes along or a pattern is the same which has a different sense concept after it. This concept will be tagged same as the first.

Page 11

Device so if it is completely the same is recorded after or below. When it turns out to be same again S causes it. 
Same unit recognizes patterns of same. 
Reading can become automatic.

This S will have priority in recording blocking any other.
Anything not totally the same it will record the part that is the same.
In the case of movement or voice it will read if it is the same instead of record S record Rd.
If it is the same as a past record it CRS’s which records what happened in past. And if it comes into a stop it will not read off.
If comes into a new sight it will cause it to read.
4 commands   CRS read on to a stop S or P
                         Rd to read on
                         S to record S and switch CRS
                         St. to not Rd command
                         P If read on to P go back to Rd.

Page 12

Any brain has to understand. i.e. know what to do, know the (to expect) result; know the (reason for) cause.

It has to want to do this.
It has to be interested.
Information comes in. It recalls if it has recorded this information in the past. If it has no recollection it will be interested. It will want to understand. If it has recorded this information it will see if it understood it. If it did it will either, do something, expect something, have no interest in it or know not to do anything. It wants to find relationships i.e. what follows or what causes. It wants to find results or causes.

It likes that which interests it. It is interested in understanding. It is only interested in things unfamiliar with the present. It will remember the cause and result. If a cause comes along it is interested to see if the result gives it something to do. If the result is favourable it does it. If the result is non-favourable it does not do it. When it does something it produces a cause and this again interests it.

Page 13

Page 14 

Fig 1 is a memory neuron

any impulses coming through F dendrite are passed on through B dendrite if impulse frequency is not same as recorded frequency of the neuron. If it is the same frequency a message is passed through axon. If the neuron has not record of any frequency it will record the first frequency it receives. 

Item 1: The ear will receive sounds of varying frequency and loudness. These two (frequency and loudness) (there will be 2 ears) have to be changed into the frequency of the impulses going to the brain and through which wire they pass. The frequency of the sound could be directly proportional to the frequency of the impulses and the loudness proportional to the number of receptors stimulated. Therefore there should be a great many wires coming from the ear. Two types of ears possible: 1/ cochlea, 2/ diaphragm.


2/ as in a telephone, Waves changed into frequencies and different wires by electric [sleve?] Used to determine amount of wave frequencies like in EEG analysis “see nerves and muscles by Robert Galambos page 114, 115 EEG analyses”

[On the following 8 pages]

Item 2: There will be two eyes.
A is the lens able to be focused either by stretching or moving forwards and backwards. B is the iris which is an automatic reflex see item 13.
C is the screen, detects electromagnetic radiation falling upon it. It could consist of small packets of chemical dies, pigments, not so likely though. Most likely consists of many electric cells metallic substances sheets or rods.
They should be able to detect the frequency and brightness of the light. Frequency can be proportional to the frequency of impulses coming from each light cell. The brightness can be proportional to the number of neurons stimulated. The direction can be proportional to which neurons or light cells are stimulated.
Information from the left half of each eye ball can go to left neuron decipherers.

Item 3: Muscles are for moving arms, fingers, head, body, eyes, ears, voice and wheels for moving feet or turning. Could consist of substance which contracts or expands on electric stimulation. It could be hydraulic using oil pressure. Muscles would have to be controlled directly proportional to the impulses frequency of commands. Where they move would be controlled by the co-ordination of muscles. How fast or hard would be controlled by the frequency of impulses as mentioned above. A hydraulic muscle is more practical and easier to obtain in 1968 than a substance which contracts or expands. There would be approximately 50 muscles.

Item 4: Voice
The voice can be an electric speaker. A vibrating cord is too hard to produce. The signal from the brain could be in impulses at certain frequencies on certain wires. This could be changed into use electric current of varying frequencies and amplitudes which would cause the speaker to vibrate due to the magnet.

Item 5: Transmission. The signals necessary to operate the robot could be transmitted over radio channels or could be put over telephone wires like an umbilical cord.

Item 6: This is the coordinator (centraciphilic? system) It contains basic circuits which have reflexes which can be controlled. (It is the place where consciousness is or is it?) See Item 19. Reflexes controlled to be consciousness

Item 7: The automatic unit contains basic circuits to make something do a continuous cycle of repetitive action. It can be concentrated on and also switched off at desire i.e. walking. If anything unusual happens it can signal the consciousness that something unusual is happening and it will attract the attention. This could be due to an irregularity like a sudden noise behind when you are concentrating on reading a book. It will contain automatic warning devices which will interrupt the conscious flow. It is very closely linked to the conscious. In fact it is nearly the consciousness. It will have a memory bank which will be able to switch different incoming impulses to the memory or to the automatic unit. It will switch recalls and read mechanisms. It will have a record of commands and will order them to be done subconsciously or consciously.

Item 8: Eye deciphering unit consists of analytical neurons.
These are divided into 2 parts. The 1st picks out lines angles shapes. The 2nd picks out groups of lines making objects. It picks out objects such as a book. If we think of a book we either see the word (book) or a picture of a book. This could be called a concept. These concepts are passed onto the memory. In this analysing unit an impression of 3D is obtained and movement is also noticed See Item 17 

Item 9: The Ear deciphering unit consists of analytic neurons. These are very similar to the eye. D.U. divided into 2 areas. The 1st picks out noise from a specific direction, intensity or quality. The 2nd recognizes them as voice or car or thunder. This is passed onto the memory as a concept along with the visual concept. See Item 12.

Item 10: This is the memory consisting of memory neurons. They remember all concepts and images and interrelating relationships. It remembers movements and voices. If anything comes in it has recorded before the record is stimulated and the exact memory is recorded through the consciousness again with the original stimulation of that record. Any interrelationships are also concentrated on. If action is necessary appropriate neurons stimulated which remember that action is necessary.

Item 11: The concept of the movement in the memory triggered by the consciousness or what is seen heard etc. causes this analytical unit to tell the muscles how to move to obtain the result which the concept represents. This could be done by sending the concept backwards through the feeling decipher unit and sending the result to the muscles. See Item 21.

Item 12: Similarly as Item 11 this unit tells the speaker how to say the concept that is received from the consciousness. This also could be sending the concept in reverse through the hearing unit and sending the result to the speaker. See Item 9.

Item 13: Reflexes which cannot be concentrated on
This consists of the iris. “I” senses the intensity of light from the signals coming out of the wires from the eye leading to brain. The memory causes Iris to delight proportional to the light entering the “I”

Another reflex is the inner ear. This measures acceleration and balance from the information from inner ear. A memory bank automatically tells consciousness something is wrong. Consciousness takes over and corrects. 

A thermometer to warn consciousness that it is too hot or too cold.

Item 14: Modification for ESP
Eyesight could be modified to give wider range of visible spectrum. It could have an extra eye to visualize radar and radio waves or to visualize ultraviolet x-ray and gamma rays.

Ears could be modified to hear ultrasonic.

A new addition could be added to the voice so it sent out ultrasonic blips which through its ear it could “see” things.

Strength could be very powerful.

Could have a laser connected to its conscious as a weapon tool or communications equipment.

Item 15: Impulses and code

A signal would look like this:

A could be one frequency, lower than C
B could be another frequency higher than C.
C could be the normal frequency which the detector or muscle would emit when no stimulation is present. Or the detector or muscle could transmit no signal when no stimulation and varying frequencies of impulses when there was stimulation.
Coding device would change this into different codes for muscles or voice and also would change different codes into this code.

Item 16: Sleep and processing

During sleep external sensory detectors could be turned off and so could muscles and voice. The mind could remain conscious and go through the last day experiences and thoughts wiping those neurons which have recorded useless information and record this information on tapes see Item 17. It could also catalogue the last days experiences into different categories (It could concentrate on what it did not have time to concentrate on when it was concentrating on other things gaining additional information) It could change over conscious actions to the automatic unit.

Item 17: A tape bank could be established to record useless information or to tape a complete experience or skill for a less sophisticated brain i.e. driving a car. A less sophisticated brain would just consist of an automatic unit. It could be connected up to a television set. It is the consciousness, so I could see and hear what it has heard and seen. It could connect itself to a typewriter so it could type a record of its experience or type some imagination it might have.
To use the television set we would use (the reverse process of) our eye deciphering unit, in reverse process. See Item 8.

Item 18: The only difficulty is to get it started. How will it record some of these automatic reflexes and how will it learn?  Take for example knowledge on how to move (Item 11). This knowledge will be gained from experience but in man it is eventually forgotten or we are not able to concentrate on it but we can still move when we want to.
Learning is the understanding of what to do in a situation. When it starts it will have a command to repeat everything it hears or feels in speech and movement. When one thing has been repeated and the same movement memorized. This will be put into automatic consciousness.

It will always want to concentrate on change or things that are different.

It will learn that through the reading of memory. It can cause hearing and feeling to change. It will have a desire for change or hate of same. It could also have a desire for feeling. This would make it enjoy work, a hate for lack of feeling to make it always want to feel, all feelings will be forgotten or recorded out of access to recall so it will want the same feeling because it is different i.e. not recalled.

Item 19: The consciousness or Thalamus
This deciphers the information from the memory. If action is necessary it relays it to the movement or speech areas. All concepts passing through consciousness are passed on to the memory.
When you are conscious of one thing you cannot concentrate on another. Therefore the consciousness can not record in the memory anything that is not concentrated on.
The automatic unit takes over here. It recalls from the memory by sending the impulses through from the eyes, ears, and feeling. If a similar record is in the memory this is stimulated. The original is recorded in the memory (1) at the same time. When the consciousness has compared records with originals this data is recorded after (1) (The consciousness contains basic desires and wants or commands, in the automatic unit which is the memory of the conscious. Consciousness and commands recorded in memory in chronological order. Recalls and compares what command. 

Item 20: Nerves give the mind knowledge of where the muscles are. What they are doing. The code is the same as what is sent on through the movement channel.

Item 21: This translates the impulses into the concept of what position the muscles are at. This concept is the same as is given to the movement unit to carry out the concept. Most of the time, this is subconscious. Does not concentrate on where the muscles are. Therefore it will be mostly through the automatic unit Item 7. See Item 11.