4th Feb 1997

Muscles  – Trigger stimulus  – light level changes

  – Compare with desire

  – Make appropriate response  - close / open iris

The goal may be fixed – preprogrammed - reflexes

Get stimulus

Compare with goal (requires recognition) - Finish if met – but maintain vigilance

Make appropriate response

Obtain feedback stimulus – brings us back to the top – Get Stimulus

If we have a device to control it knows internally how to maintain its status. Just send it the response – do action to given location – this is received by device as changing the goal. Goals are stimuli that are desired – feeling are associated with stimuli not responses.

Next level of information

  • Triggering stimulus
  • Associated remembered occurrence /or/ triggered feeling
  • Associated feeling
  • Start executing past response /or/ don’t respond

When you make an appropriate response you are giving an output device a goal to achieve – which means you are sending a required stimulus (desired stimulus) to the device – Does this happen when you initiate a habit.

The unique Identifier of a habit is the desired (goal) / expected stimulus that the habit will achieve when it is invoked and performs successfully to completion. Habit performance finishes when the desired (goal) / expected stimulus is achieved in reality. As each response is made feedback stimulus is received to cue the next response in the habit. All stimuli are recognized and when they match the goal stimulus attention attracted to the fact and the habit is done. Any failure (or deviation) of feedback stimulus may be recognized and a different habit or part of the habit be performed still trying to achieve the goal. Does this need conscious decision or this automatic switch to new habit done habitually – notice still trying to achieve original goal stimulus – this has not changed.

To achieve the goal the habit may be composed of sub habits which are trying to achieve sub-goals because the habits are aggregations of sub-habits. That’s how they build up on each other. Each sub-habit maintains its integrity and successfulness and gets reused. It has its own sub-goals and expected stimulus.

15th July 1997 [Page 1]

Envy is an emotion.

Reflexes are associated with paying attention.

[Page 2]

Behaviour sequence (BS)

       Given a context stimulus and a desired feedback goal stimulus then this is what you do for success.

       Context & end -> means (that works). Means takes the form of a # of parallel and sequential BS each with context & end -> means.

GS = Goal Stimulus

OS= One Shot

TS = Triggering Stimulus

R = Response

FS = Feedback Stimulus

Simple One-shot

Complex Continuous – 2 or more one shots working together as group to regulate

Transfer triggering of reflex to another stimulus through learning – discrimination / generalization.

* The expected goal stimulus is the identifier of a habit (not a response command).

* The decision to start a habit is made based on a match of the trigger (situation) stimuli and the goal stimulus be desirable!

E.g. Athletes visualize the result they want to obtain / cause the right behaviour.

[Page 3]

Group of Behaviour sequences

Sa -> R1 -> Sb Sf -> R2 -> Sf             Conscious learning (high-level learning which requires thinking)

     -> Sc                  -> R1 -> Sf

     -> Sd                  -> R3 -> Sa

Compare S with desired goal S, if match perform R, if mismatch stop.

Compare Sa with stored Sa – matches, then are expected Sb, Sc, Sd desirable.

Yes – if so do R1 – start executing as a habit

No – else no do.

One shot reflex

St => Rr         St is recognized   * Goal is implicit

                       => associated Rr so do it

Continuous reflex

Sa => R1 -> Sc => R3 Sa recognized Goal is implicit.

Sb => R1’                      => associated R1 so do it,

                                       R1 and R1’ work on opposing muscles

                                       Goal is a balance point between Sa and Sb

Habit execution  - successful execution of known habit – learnt.

Sa => R1 -> Sb Se Sf => R2 – Sg  Sa recognized, so habit identified start executing because all feedback S flagged successful.

       -> Sc => R1 -> Sg

       -> Sd => R3 -> Sa => R1

Simple Habit

Sb, Sa => Ra -> Sa

[Page 4]

Generalization of reflexive response to another stimulus Reflex Sf => Rs

Sb, Sf Fe/g => Rs       Sb = bell, Sf = food, Rs = Salivate

                                       Fe/g = Feeling good idea – expected

Next time Sb occurs

Sb Fe/g = Rs

What form is original reflex in?

Cheek touch and turn head reflex

St => Rt         St – cheek touched, Rt – head turns

Finger touch

Sf, St => Rt         Sf – finger touch,  Sf too similar to St – hard to analyze (Finger touch produces St or is recognized as the same.)

Bell Ring

Sb, St => Rt -> Sd           Sb – bell ring, Sd different every time done

Certain probability that bell will trigger Rt. Will do provided concentrating at level 0 = no expectations, bell will match Sb –attention attracted, habit – not punished, not rewarded, is familiar – so perform as a habit. Can transfer / generalize to another Sc paired with bell. No expectations of feedback stimulus – no good.

Shouldn’t Sd produce Fn – novelty, the first time

Sb, St => Rt -> Sd, Fn

[Page 5]

Then when Sb occurs again and not concentrating then habit has novel result so perform

Sb Sd/e Fn/e => Rt -> Sd         Fn = Feeling Novel, [ /e is an expectation – idea]

Expected Sd and expected novelty feeling mark the habit started execution. Why did habit jump the gun and not wait for St ? Maybe should only jump the gun if Fg/e but not Fn/e because expected novel really expects the same feedback stimulus trying to predict the environment.

So instead:  Sb, Sd/e, St => Rt -> Sd Ff         Ff = feeling familiar

Now it understands environment and no good or bad feeling so does not repeat as habit – habits need success or failure.

So we have Sb, St => Rt -> Sd Ff       repeats as long as St => Rt

Learn to Recognize

Just consider Fn Ff on stimuli

STM      Sa Fn Sb Fn Sc Fn Sa/A [ Sb Ff] Sd Fn  Sa/A recognized – familiar, [Sb Ff] not in STM and Sd = sequence novelty.

Fn stuff transferred to LTM, Sa/A = Address of Sa (eidetic reference) but not performing so no sequence expectations.

LTM      Sa Sb Sc Sa/A

2nd Sa is recognized – its familiar but not following an Sc – so do habit of recognizing sequence, flag start execute habit at Sa/A address, expect an Sb and if it is received / sensed then environment is doing what is expected – familiar – not stored in LTM.

So Sa, Sb is common sequence in environment but not always followed by Sc and Sc not always followed by Sa. So then receive Sd and am habit performing at Sb

1) Sd maybe novel or 2) Sd maybe familiar but it is novel to execution sequence. Which ever attention attracted by unfamiliar sequence.

If habit is following other possible threads if any are familiar it does not attract attention but switches to those threads – answer 2 pages from here [ think about later].

[Page 6]

E.g. Sm, Sb, Sd  may

Case 1) Sd is novel and not expected attention attracted – Habit stops <- not habit until expected once.

LTM        Sa, Sb, Sc, Sa/A Sd Fn Se Fn

Case 2) Sd is familiar but not expected in current sequence being followed, attention attracted – old habit stops – new habit begins

Sa, Sb Sc Sa/A Sd/A

[These notes have been crossed out:

In both these cases no indication of where in Sa/A sequence the Sd appeared to interrupt i.e. what was stimulus preceding Sd. When the habit stops must store the preceding Sb to give Sd context.

End of crossed out notes]

* Premature habit execution! Need to perform it at concentration level 1 to test its correctness – familiar stimulus + familiar order  *

Sa, Sb, Sc, SaFf, SbFf, Fs       familiar Ff-> started performing at level 1

                                                     successful Fs -> success familiar order -> can use as habit

1) Sd Novel and unexpected in sequence (novel)

 Sa Sb Sc Sa Sb Fs Sd Fn       attention attracted concentration drops to 0

2) Sd Familiar but sequence novel

 Sa Sb Sc Sa SbFf Sd             stop performing here and star tat new location.

 Now Sa Sb sequence established – habit to recognize them.

[Page 7]

* Next time Sa received a recognition habit is started to wait for Sb and concentration stays at level 0. Allows for multiple simultaneous stimuli from different senses

Case A)

What if Sc received – start performing level 1 at Sc expect Sa

Sa is received so have successful sequence.    Fs = feeling successful

  Sc Sa Fs - followed by any stimulus - not familiar or not familiar order and Sa initiates habit to expect Sb.  Now have two habits Sa Sb Fs and Sc Sa Fs – When Sc next occurs habit to recognize starts Sc Sa Fs habit – when gets Sa it finishes this habit and automatically switches to Sa Sb Fs habit. Recognition habit switches subconsciously between habits – [this is the] answer to Pg 5 bottom!

Case B)

What if habit recognizing Sa Sb Fs completes – normal finish – then it does not interrupt attention – habit just ends it achieved goal = disregard familiar order of stimuli. Memory looks like Sa | Ff  a familiar higher level stimulus.

Case C)

Sd occurs after habit to recognize Sa Sb Fs has finished

Have Sa Sb Sc Sa Sb Fs Sd…   and get Sa | Ff Sd – the | is the subconscious recognition of Sb

So need a break marker | where habit started being performed – or maybe Sb Sd is stored because Sb was context when Sd occurred. Call it a habit started marker -> implies did / do habit – call it Sa address indicator implies recognized higher level stimulus

Case D)

Sb does not occur while performing habit instead Se occurs

Habit fails and attracts attention if it can interrupt

So feeling brought up?

Sa | Fx Se or Sa | Sa Se         if this happens again it will perform it and mark it successful

Attention memory always has actually received / previous to unexpected stimuli – context for failure.  best illustrated with longer sequence

[Page 8]

Change at different rates detected by different parts motion by senses – rapid change – extremely fast – may miss item altogether from second to second STM – minutes hourly + + LTM.

Case C) upon successful completion of habit to recognize the goal stimulus becomes conscious to new sequence

Sa | Ff Sd Fs

And now Sd is related to end of habit if Sb causes start of concentration + performance at previous Sb

At Ff we start concentrating and consciously expected Sd because Sa | was recognized by habit and as soon as match a stimulus we start performing past experience.

If we had Sa | habit and Sg | habit we should be able to get Sa | Sg | Fs and form a new pattern recognition habit.

Case D) longer sequence  Sa Sb Fs Sc Fs Sd Fs is habit and Sa | Sc Se occurs if Se received instead of Sd if repeated new will be Sa | Sc Fs Se Fs a new version of the habit – both start with Sa |

So next Sa will activate both habits in parallel one will fail other will succeed.

Now back to Pg 4 – 5 Reflexive response – no punishment or reward

Sb = bell ring,  St = cheek touched, Rt= head turn, Fn=feeling Novelty

Sb,    St => Rt -> Sd        1st time  Sd is another different stimulus

Fn     Reflex        Fn

[Page 9]

2nd time     Fs = feeling success

  Sb,  St => Rt -> Sd

  Ff     Reflex             Ff  implies Fs

Start doing

In this sequence reflex still triggered while performing / concentrating on the past experience at level 1 initiated by Ff

3rd time   Sb => Rt   habit performed

How do we ever get to this 3rd stage? Where we don’t wait for St to occur but we are executing the past experience? It needs a Fg (good feeling) to do a jump / assumption like this.  This idea expressed on  * Pg 5

Or is it a generalization – patter recognition of Sb is good enough to be equivalent to Sb, St as a triggering stimulus! – NO!

[Page 10]

30th Aug 1997

Recalling a good stimulus implies thinking – it might only take place when thinking. But when learning there has to be the feeling that says (is interpreted as) YES go ahead and repeat it or NO don’t repeat past experience. This feeling can be that of familiarity triggering lower concentration or good triggering high concentration or the idea of good triggering medium concentration.

31st Aug 1997

More detailed analysis of pattern recognition cases from pg 6

STM                Sa  Fn  Sb  Fn  Sc  Fn  Sa  Ff  Sb  Fs

LTM                Sa        Sb         Sc        Sa         Sb  Fs

Location           1           2           3           4          5    6

Concentrate    0          0          0            0     1   1    1

Doing at location                                            2  2    3

Next possibilities are Sc, Sd (familiar), Sd (Novel)

Sc Received

STM                Sb Fs Sc   Fs

LTM                Sb Fs Sc   Fs

Location           5    6   7    8

Concentration  1    1   1    1

Doing at           2    3   3    4

Continue to do past experiences at concentration level 1 proving correctness of order of stimuli.  Fs flags a successful order has been recognized.

[Page 11]

Sd familiar

STM                    Sb  Fs  Sd    Ff  S1

LTM                    Sb  Fs  Sd

Location               5     6   7

Concentration      1   1    0      1

Doing at               2   3            X

Stop executing at 3 because not match with past sequence but Sd familiar so start executing at location X where Sd was 1st found.  Sd might trigger habit! – see pg 12

Sd Novel

STM                    Sb Fs Sd Fn

LTM                    Sb Fs Sd

Location               5   6    7

Conc.                    1   1    0    0

Doing at               2    3

Stop executing at 3 because not match with past sequence.

Given location 1 -> 6 which contains the successful habit Sa Sb Fs then another Sa occurs triggering the habit to ignore the Sa Sb sequence.

Sa repeats

STM            Sb  Fs  S4  Ff

LTM            Sb  Fs  S4

Loc.             5    6    7

Conc.          1    1     0     1

Doing at       2    3           ?

Submind at             4

S4 or Sa| to mark start of habit execution of Sa habit?

Fs is feeling of successful performance of sequence (associated stimuli) while at concentration level 1 or higher.

If then Sb is received as submind expects it to submind performs at 4 and 5 and terminates and get Ff – start executing because next stimulus S4 not fllowed by an Fs – As long as there is an S then Fs the S then Fs the submind will continue performing. As soon as S S Fs S S we have an end of the sequence that has become a habit after the Fs position.

[Page 12]

Sd Familiar – Triggers Habit

STM                Sb Fs Sd

LTM                Sb Fs Sd

Location           5    6   7

Concentration  1   1    0

Doing at           2    3   -

Submind at                 x

Sd triggers habit which was found at location x

24th Sept 1997

Now let’s look at submind performance of Habit.

STM                  Sa  Fn  Sb Fn Sc Fn Sa Ff Sb Fs Sc Fs Sd Fn Sa4         Sa Sb Sc is the successful habit recognized

LTM                  Sa        Sb       Sc      Sa      Sb  Fs Sc Fs Sd     Sa4

Location           1          2          3          4         5     6   7   8  9        10 

Concentration  0          0          0          0     1 1    1  1    1   0        0   

Doing at             -           -           -         -     2  2   3  3    4    -         - 

Submind at                                                                                       4

If Sb next stimulus submind will match it and not store in STM or LTM but will be in sensory memory should need to pay attention to it. After matching Sb submind will be doing the next successful recognition task of waiting for Sc. If there were any other Sb triggered successful habits these would be on the list of possible next stimuli to recognize. If anyone of them matches actual next stimulus Sx received the submind continues using the Sx as the trigger for any possible next stimuli to recognize. It only stops when the list of next stimuli to successfully recognize contains no next stimuli then get a Ff or the stimulus Sx received is not on the list.

Novel Unfamiliar – produces surprise.

If concentrating and novel stimulus (watching a magician and a strange unexpected thing happens) then no match expected. Interrupt execution, lower concentration; wait for memory to give info. on whether familiar or novel and what to do.

If submind recognizing and novel stimulus then interrupt mind.

[Page 13]

What is happening to mind during submind recognition of known and ignored stimuli?

Sx Not match Habit

Interrupt mind with Sx info. Two possibilities Sx is novel and Sx is familiar. First time novel – then familiar.

Sx Novel

STM          Sd Fn Sa4 Sb Sx Fn Se Fn Sa4 Sb Ff Sx Fs Sg Fn

LTM          Sd      Sa4 Sb Sx       Se      Sa4 Sb     Sx Fs Sg

Loc.           9        10   11 12       13

Conc.        0          0    0    0         0         0      0   1   1   1   0

Doing        -          -                                    -     11     -     11

Submind              4                                  4

Reflexes - Pre-recorded sequence    from Pg 8

STM        -Reflex -                Sb Fn St1  Sd  Fn            Sb  Ff  St1 Fs Sd Fs          

LTM        St  Rt  Fs                Sb       St1 Sd                   Sb      St1  Fs  Sd  Fs

Loc          1   2    3                 10       11   12                    20      21   22  23  24

Conc       -     -    -                    0         0    0                          1    1     1     1     1

Doing                                        -           -       -                   -  10 11 12 12   13

Submind                                              1                                          1

[Page 14]

Some stimuli produce feelings of good Fg or feeling of bad Fb. So let us assume Sy results in Fg and Sn results in Fb.

If these are received in the context of other stimuli they cause certain reactions. 

Sy in context of stimuli.

LTM  Sa Sb Sy Fg Sc Sd 1st time

Loc.   1     2   3    4    5   6

STM    Sa Ff Sb Fgi Sy Fg         2nd time – expectation of something good going to occur in Idea of Fg = Fgi

LTM    Sa     Sb  Fgi Sy Fg  

Loc.     10      11  12 13 14        It can’t make it occur any sooner because dependent on order of input.

Conc.    1       1    3    3   ?  

Doing    2       2    3    3   ?         If had a response between Sb and Sy then could have on 3rd time done response after Sa.

STM    Sa Fai Sb

LTM    Sa Fai Sb

Loc.     20  21  22

Conc.        2    2

Doing      11

[Page 15]

Learning Process

Receive stimulus or feeling

Store in stimulus sensory memory (remove one before previous one)

If submind doing

     Does it recognize it (match with any habit?)

     Yes – then go no further – back to get next stimulus

     No – submind stops – with Fx feeling of failure

Store in LTM

Find it in LTM. Return Ff or Fn and loc.

Use feeling to decide to do / not do.

If do, set concentration level.

[Page 16]

Back to submind – it recognizes / executes successfully learnt sequences and does not store in STM or LTM any of the stimuli or responses. When it finishes a habit because there are no more stimuli to expect then it returns Ff to consciousness. To avoid problem of long sequences which have alternate stimuli in the middle let us use binary stimuli pairs. The 1st stimulus is the trigger and the second the expected one. Fs occurs when concentrating after second one received – this produces a pair. So from pg 12 when Sa4 occurs and Sb received we should get Ff.

Input      Sa      Sb       Sc      Sa       Sb      Sc     Sd     Sa Sb     Sc      Se

STM      Sa Fn Sb Fn Sc Fn Sa Ff Sb Fs Sc Fs Sd Fn Sa4   Ff  Sc Fs Se  Fn

LTM      Sa      Sb       Sc      Sa       Sb Fs Sc Fs Sd      Sa4         Sc Fs Se

Loc        1          2         3          4       5    6   7  8  9        10           11 12 13

Conc.    0          0         0          0     1  1    1   1  1  0          0       1    1    1   0

Doing      -         -          -          -      2  2    3   3  4  -          -       7    7    9   -

Sub        -          -           -          -       -    -     -     -   -    -         4       -      -     -     -

Now if Sa Sc Sb also frequently occurs what happens to set up recognition habit?

Input      Sa        Sc

STM    Sa10

LTM    Sa10

Loc        14

Conc     0

Doing    -


When Sa Sb in STM and Fs while executing then replace Sa Sb with Sa1.

[Page 17]

So if recognized pairs of stimuli get replaced with label new memory trace looks like:

Now what happens when Sa Sc Sb also common sequence

When Sc was received and familiar at 3 and 5 but not Fs then just flush previous Sa out of LTM. Start executing at Sc location 6 but also keep location 4 as alternative. If Sd had occurred after Sc this would end up as successful Sc5 recognized. If Sa1 had occurred after Sc then this would have been successful Sc3 recognized.

[Page 18]

25th Sept 1997

The capacity of STM will be how many Ff stimuli can hold before no Fs of Fn occurs. Both of which cause a drop in amount held in STM. But Ff’s also caused STM -> LTM storage of previous familiar stimuli. Maybe STM capacity in this example is 2 because get Fs when pairs match up. A bigger matching sequence would require STM capacity > 2.

From Pg 13 and Pg 8 let’s introduce Responses

Reflex a pre-recorded sequence

LTM    St  Rt              Reflex as recorded

Loc      1   2

                                   Now it is triggered      Fd = Felling of done  very similar to if not identical to Fs

Input / Out  Sb          St        Rt                            Sd

STM          Sb   Fn  St  Ff  Rt  Fd  <-  St1 Fn   Sd  Fn

LTM                  Sb                                       St1         Sd

Loc                    10                                        11          12

Conc                   0   0   1    1   1          1    0             0

Doing                  -   -    2    2   2          2    -               -

Next time sequence occurs same reflex triggered but response should not be done early because no Fg involved.

I/O        Sb       St      Rt                                                     Sd

STM    Sb Ff St Ff Rt Fd <- St1  Fs <- Sb10  Fn      Sd Ff

LTM                                                                          Sb10

Loc                                                                              20

Conc     0     1   1   1  1    1       1    1          1        0       0     1

Doing    -   11 11 11 11  11    11    11        11      -        -     13

                     /1    /1  /2 /2   /2      /2    /2         /2

[Page 19]

Pg 14 explored feelings of Good and Bad.  Sy produces Fg, Sn produces Fb

Sy in context of Stimuli only

Input    Sa        Sb         Sy                Sc                        Fg brings concentration level to 0 and stops doing? Fg is remembered in LTM.

STM    Sa  Fn  Sb  Fn  Sy  Fg        Sc Fn

LTM          Sa         Sb        Sy  Fg        Sc

Loc              1           2           3   4            5

Conc           0     0     0     0   0    0      0    0

Now what happens the second time

Also get                 Fs                                Ff

Input    Sa      Sb                               Sy

STM    Sa  Ff  Sb  Fs <- Sa1  Fn     Sy  Fg

LTM                                          Sa1          Sy  Fg

Loc                                              10            11  12

Conc         1    1     1       1        0     0      0    0

Doing        2    2     2       2        -       -       -    -

What if Sa not received but start with Sb

Also get           Ff            Ff,Fs

Input        Sb         Sy

STM        Sb Fgi  Sy    Fg



Conc.              3      3

Doing              3      3

[Page 20]

28th Sept 1997

Work out algorithm to recognize hierarchy of stimuli.

[Page 21]

1st Oct 1997

Given recognized stimulus or successful actions we have

an associated stimulus,

an associated response,

an associated feeling (good  / bad) and

an associated idea of.

3rd Oct 1997

The response can be a simple response or a high level response. A high level response consists of a response, feedback stimulus,

response, feedback stimulus, reward feeling. A pair of responses chained together and rewarded (?) to associate them.

If H.L. response just response, feedback stimulus then no pattern / havbit /high level command is built up. The feedback stimulus could be simple or high level – its successful recognition would make the response the right one. If the feedback stimulus is recognized but not successful or feedback stimulus new don’t have success to identify high level stimulus. Always separate triggering stimulus from response because decision point involved.

As soon as performed a pair of R-S’s then have a High level response. The 1st R1-S1 has to have success on recognizing S1 and 2nd R2-S2 has to have success of recognizing S2. New Rx becomes Rx-S2 where x is address of R1. If S1 is new or familiar but unexpected we have no success, just record R1 in LTM – keep S1 in STM for match – new doing. S1 or S2 are also successful if they get a good feeling after them or the idea of a good feeling.

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4th Oct 1997

Rules Fn – move all STM to LTM and listen

           Ff – If not doing – start doing at all match locations

                 - If doing + matches 1 of expected – have success Fs

                                 - not expected – move all except latest STM -> LTM

                                 - matches many of expected – do 1st one of match list

         Fs – collapse STM into new stimulus address

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5th Oct 1997

Habit id given to RSR sequence

After Response stimulus is either (must be doing)

 Fn  dump STM toLTM level <- 0

 Ff    Not expected move all to STM except latest

       matches many of expected -> do 1st one of match

       matches 1 of expected - > successful Fs – collapse STM

Not doing

Trigger stimulus recognized (Ff) – start doing

 If response then do it and start recognizing feedback stimulus

     If new stop doing

     If familiar + expected continue doing – recognizing feedback stimulus

     If familiar + not expected start doing at new location

 If feedback stimulus recognized and another response then do it and label it as OUTAD

Sf = feedback stimulus, St = Triggering Stimulus

To get St R1 Sf1 R2 Sf2 to collapse into St Rx Sf2 where Rx is response done at location x (where R1 is stored) Sf1 must be recognized = familiar successfully as single stimulus and R2 done but no need for Sf2 to be recognized.

When doing St Rx Sf2 – 1st St recognized and start doing.

When doing Rx do R1 in STM

  Recognize Sf1 in STM

  Do R2 in STM collapse to Rx

Before you do response you take successful triggering stimulus from STM and put it in LTM. Except if STM starts with response.

When started doing response you made a decision to do/ not do based on expected feelings (these expectations could be stored before doing response)

If expect bad then stop doing

 If expect neutral – proceed level 1

 If expect good – proceed level 3

- do response

- recognize feedback stimulus (still doing)

 If successful – already doing

 And next to do is response – before doing it what are expected feelings if neutral/good do it + collapse RSR.

If feedback stimulus (and matches one of expected) recognized – different St R1 Sf switch doing this new one on match list of St.

4th Nov 1997 Learning Styles

Reflex – built-in stimulus -> response. Always done / non-inhibitable

Repeat what was done last time in same situation (if have such an experience)

New situation – any part of it -> repeat response from memory. Only repeat/respond if have positive feeling – expectation of a change to good – expectation of improvement.

Generalization? - responding to type rather than actual instance. When faced with same situation mind recalls resulting stimulus and expectation of improvement.

Boredom drive to avoid anything that reduces boredom (repetition) is rewarding – Anything that increases change is rewarding.

After a response there are a variety of possible resulting stimuli so many possible cues for next response in a habit.

  ** Neutral stimuli take on rewarding or punishing feelings when they are followed by (improvement in moods) good/bad feelings which are changes in status of mood. This continues 2nd order / 3rd order etc. Have need/drive – water/thirsty, food/hungry, change/bored, rest/tired, Pleasure/Sad? (generic), heat/cold any stimulus that changes state of these needs produces feelings of good/bad.

But after a stimulus situation recognized a variety of things can be done – one is chosen based on recency, current need.

When generalizing – new stimulus situation recalls a response which had a certain expected improvement – dependent on similarity – subset of stimuli matching

Needs (are experienced as) produce stimuli – hunger, thirst, boredom, cold, tiredness. These are instinctive / reflexive responses to these stimuli which usually obtain the object that improves the situation – reduces or eliminates the need stimulus.

Some of the first responses we learn are ones to pay attention to particular senses + features. Orienting responses – control a sense organ to detect particular stimulus presence or absence – No physical orienting response detect some feature such as pitch of sound or colour of object, but still a mental response to use that feature.

Reflexive attraction of attention is a reflexive response.

Hope = expectation

Sorrow <--> Joy

Anger    <-->  Pleasure

Shame  <--> Pride

Guilt      <--> correct – right          morals

S1 R1 Sr Fr    -->  S1 Fr R1 Sr Fr  backward chaining

The only reflex should be to do random response if bored.

5th Nov 1997

Cue stimulus – find at many locations gives list of expected next stimuli – execute most recent one

If stimulus (resulting) following stimulus – matches one of expected list – match  collapse /compress – new stimulus? Call it an Action.

Cue stimulus – find at many locations gives list of expected next stimuli / responses to do – execute most recent one.

If response – do it and collapse STM of S + R into an address N pointer. Sn – an Action.